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Into The Golden Horn

   2020    History
Mehmed II sends his elite troops into the teeth of Emperor Constantine's defenses along the city's ancient stone walls. The defenders, led by Italian soldier-of-fortune Giovanni Giustiniani, repel every attack. Mehmed's men dig underground tunnels in an attempt to shatter city walls. The tides turn against the Ottomans when a naval blockade founders.
Series: Rise of Empires: Ottoman

Loose Lips Sink Ships

   2020    History
Sultan Mehmed II's siege of Constantinople enters its third week. Mehmed's artillery teams continue their relentless bombardment of Constantinople's walls. After his navy suffers a devastating defeat, Mehmed moves his ships overland to the Golden Horn in a daring, visionary feat. In the shadow of betrayal, Giustiniani attacks the Ottoman fleet.
Series: Rise of Empires: Ottoman

Lost City of Life

   2020    Science
Episode 3 delves into how life began on a roiling, violent Earth and explores the story behind Victor Goldschmidt, the man who found the first clues to life's beginnings on our planet. Neil deGrasse Tyson takes viewers on a journey through space and time to witness the tenacity and creativity of life on Earth and the prospects of life throughout the universe.
Series: Cosmos: Possible Worlds

Words on a Page

   2020    History
Writing itself is 5,000 years old, and for most of that time words were written by hand using a variety of tools. The Romans were able to run an empire thanks to documents written on papyrus. Scroll books could be made quite cheaply and, as a result, ancient Rome had a thriving written culture. With the fall of the Roman Empire, papyrus became more difficult to obtain. Europeans were forced to turn to a much more expensive surface on which to write: Parchment. Medieval handwritten books could cost as much as a house, they also represent a limitation on literacy and scholarship.
No such limitations were felt in China, where paper had been invented in the second century. Paper was the foundation of Chinese culture and power, and for centuries how to make it was kept secret. When the secret was out, paper mills soon sprang up across central Asia. The result was an intellectual flourishing known as the Islamic Golden Age. Muslim scholars made discoveries in biology, geology, astronomy and mathematics. By contrast, Europe was an intellectual backwater.
That changed with Gutenberg’s development of movable type printing. The letters of the Latin alphabet have very simple block-like shapes, which made it relatively simple to turn them into type pieces. When printers tried to use movable type to print Arabic texts, they found themselves hampered by the cursive nature of Arabic writing. The success of movable type printing in Europe led to a thousand-fold increase in the availability of information, which produced an explosion of ideas that led directly to the European Scientific Revolution and the Industrial Revolution that followed.
Series: The Secret History of Writing

Level Up

   2020    Technology
Nintendo goes 3D with Star Fox. Wolfenstein 3D popularizes the first-person shooter format, while Doom ups the ante with networked gaming. 'High Score' is a crash course on the golden age of gaming filled with insightful interviews, brilliant writing, and most importantly, an inspiring and inclusive message.
Series: High Score
The Story of Maths
The Story of Maths

   2008    Science
The Last Dance
The Last Dance

   2020    Culture
Evolution
Evolution

   2004    Science
How to Grow a Planet
How to Grow a Planet

   2012    Science
Reel Rock
Reel Rock

   2014    Culture
The Crime of the Century
The Crime of the Century

   2021    Medicine
The Private Life of Plants
The Private Life of Plants

   1994    Nature
Welcome to Earth
Welcome to Earth

   2021    Nature