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Life: Reptiles and Amphibians
Deep Web
When Knowledge Conquered Fear
Arabia
How to Grow a Planet Life from Light
Top Science Stories of 2016
Atlantis Found
Journey Through Space
Requiem for the American Dream
Is the Force With Us
Bear Necessities
Planet Dinosaur Ultimate Killers
Easy Listening
Winter on Fire
Raging Teens
Unlocking the Great Pyramid
To the Bitter End
Ancient Rome: The Fall of Rome
Who Will We Be
The Hacker Wars
The Making of Jurassic Park
Fukushima Is Nuclear Power Safe
Turtle Power The Definitive History of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles
Amazing Ocean
Bomb It
When Did Time Begin
Living with Predators. Conservation
History of the Eagles 3 of 4
Making a Murderer Eighteen Years Lost
Making a Murderer Turning the Tables
Can We Cheat Death
Fight for Life
Framing Defense
The 50s Eisenhower the Bomb and the Third World
Aftermath Population Zero
The Story of Maths To Infinity and Beyond

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The Immortals
The Immortals 2014

This episode covers the nature of how life may have developed on Earth and the possibility of life on other planets. Tyson begins by explaining how the human development of writing systems enabled the transfer of information through generations, describing how Princess Enheduanna ca. 2280 BCE would be one of the first to sign her name to her works, and how Gilgamesh collected stories, including that of Utnapishtim documenting a great flood comparable to the story of Noah's Ark. Tyson explains how DNA similarly records information to propagate life, and postulates theories of how DNA originated on Earth, including evolution from a shallow tide pool, or from the ejecta of meteor collisions from other planets. In the latter case, Tyson explains how comparing the composition of the Nakhla meteorite in 1911 to results collected by the Viking program demonstrated that material from Mars could transit to Earth, and the ability of some microbes to survive the harsh conditions of space. With the motions of solar systems through the galaxy over billions of years, life could conceivably propagate from planet to planet in the same manner. Tyson then moves on to consider if life on other planets could exist. He explains how Project Diana performed in the 1960s showed that radio waves are able to travel in space, and that all of humanity's broadcast signals continue to radiate into space from our planet. Tyson notes that projects have since looked for similar signals potentially emanating from other solar systems. Tyson then explains that the development and lifespan of extraterrestrial civilizations must be considered for such detection to be realized. He notes that civilizations can be wiped out by cosmic events like supernovae, natural disasters such as the Toba disaster, or even self-destruct through war or other means, making probability estimates difficult. Tyson describes how elliptical galaxies, in which some of the oldest red dwarf stars exist, would offer the best chance of finding established civilizations. Tyson concludes that human intelligence properly applied should allow our species to avoid such disasters and enable us to migrate beyond the Earth before the Sun's eventual transformation into a red giant.

Category:Science  Duration:42:00   Series: Cosmos 2014

 
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