Last Watched

"Middle Age"  Sort by

Words on a Page

   2020    History
Writing itself is 5,000 years old, and for most of that time words were written by hand using a variety of tools. The Romans were able to run an empire thanks to documents written on papyrus. Scroll books could be made quite cheaply and, as a result, ancient Rome had a thriving written culture. With the fall of the Roman Empire, papyrus became more difficult to obtain. Europeans were forced to turn to a much more expensive surface on which to write: Parchment. Medieval handwritten books could cost as much as a house, they also represent a limitation on literacy and scholarship.
No such limitations were felt in China, where paper had been invented in the second century. Paper was the foundation of Chinese culture and power, and for centuries how to make it was kept secret. When the secret was out, paper mills soon sprang up across central Asia. The result was an intellectual flourishing known as the Islamic Golden Age. Muslim scholars made discoveries in biology, geology, astronomy and mathematics. By contrast, Europe was an intellectual backwater.
That changed with Gutenberg’s development of movable type printing. The letters of the Latin alphabet have very simple block-like shapes, which made it relatively simple to turn them into type pieces. When printers tried to use movable type to print Arabic texts, they found themselves hampered by the cursive nature of Arabic writing. The success of movable type printing in Europe led to a thousand-fold increase in the availability of information, which produced an explosion of ideas that led directly to the European Scientific Revolution and the Industrial Revolution that followed.
Series: The Secret History of Writing

Ashes to Ashes

   2020    History
Hours before Mehmed II launches his final assault, an ominous sight shakes both sides. Rumors of a 40-ship fleet's imminent arrival have swirled for weeks, but it's exact whereabouts remained unknown. Ottoman cannons reduced the city walls to rubble, and Venetian reinforcements arrived too late. The conquest of Constantinople ushers in a new era for the Ottoman Empire, being a dominant force in world politics for 300 years. Mehmed II, in many senses, changed the nature of world history.
Series: Rise of Empires: Ottoman

Ancient Prophecies

   2020    History
It's this moment where now both sides realize that no quarter will be asked, and no quarter will be given. Surrender is no longer even an option. You're in this to the end. You either die or you triumph, and there is no other alternative. Amid a spiral of brutality and low morale, Mehmed makes Giustiniani an enticing offer. The grand vizier urges Mehmed to seek a truce with his rival.
Series: Rise of Empires: Ottoman

Into The Golden Horn

   2020    History
Mehmed II sends his elite troops into the teeth of Emperor Constantine's defenses along the city's ancient stone walls. The defenders, led by Italian soldier-of-fortune Giovanni Giustiniani, repel every attack. Mehmed's men dig underground tunnels in an attempt to shatter city walls. The tides turn against the Ottomans when a naval blockade founders.
Series: Rise of Empires: Ottoman

Through The Walls

   2020    History
April 1453. Sultan Mehmed II unleashes an artillery attack on Constantinople unlike any the world has ever known. It's the largest concentration of cannons that the world had seen in one place. The monumental task of keeping the Ottomans out of Constantinople falls on the shoulders of Genoese soldier of fortune Giovanni Giustiniani. He and his men must defend 14 miles of city walls. Mehmed launches his ambitious plans to break through the walls of Constantinople, but Giustiniani's mercenaries manage to forestall the attacks.
Series: Rise of Empires: Ottoman
Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey
Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey

   2014    Science
Reel Rock
Reel Rock

   2014    Culture
Absolute Zero
Absolute Zero

   2007    Technology
Chef's Table
Chef's Table

   2017    Art
Wonders of Life
Wonders of Life

   2013    Science
The Nazis, A Warning From History
The Nazis, A Warning From History

   1997    History
Life In Cold Blood
Life In Cold Blood

   2008    Nature
Elvis Presley: The Searcher
Elvis Presley: The Searcher

   2018    History